Chafer theological seminary
Leadership and the Church, roles and offices
05 05 2003
Warren Harold barber
2.the Church 5
the term ejkklhsiva 5
The scope 6
Why needed 8
3.Offices of the Church 9
Our Head 9
Elder - overseership 13
4.All of the beloved should be little “d” deacons 19
“You know that the rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and their high officials exercise authority over them. Not so with you. Instead, whoever wants to become great among you must be your servant, and whoever wants to be first must be your slave— just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.”
Servant leadership is the consistent model in the whole counsel of Holy Scripture, especially in the New Testament and for the leadership of the Church. The Word is full of examples, from the exalted humility of Abraham, to the perfect example of our Lord. The man the Lord honors is the one who humbles himself in knowledge of his place before God. One fully aware of his inability, and unworthiness, to offer the Lord anything of merit in one’s own strength, is on the way to being ready to serve Him.
Leadership is an issue for all Christians, the values a leader is to live up to are examples for all brothers and sisters in Christ. The longer one has been a Christian, the more the opportunity that person has had by the power of the Spirit to grow in conformity to Christ. In the New Testament, the community of the Church and our relationships with our siblings is the context for this growth. But who has authority in the local church, and does anyone other then the Word of God, have authority over the whole of the Christian Church? As all Christians are specially gifted for the role God has providentially prepared for them, the leadership styles and emphases of Deacons and Elders will vary just as the work and ministry focus of each of the Apostles was varied.
Leadership by these offices of the Church was established for the Church age, a specific time period. At least one of them is similar to a recognized Old Testament office, but its authority and responsibility is clearly restated in the New Testament for the Church. Another, had only a foundational scope, but the third is clearly a model for all believers of any age; all are to “serve.”
The purpose of this paper is to explore the offices of leadership in the Church, local and universal, the scope of their function, and how they are filled. Also it will be argued that all members of the local church can show leadership. Because this paper is covering the offices of the “church” and there are a variety of understanding of the nature of her origin, it is important to set a foundation.
(O)n this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it. -Matthew 16:18
the term ejkklhsiva
There are a variety of ideas about what the Church is. Catholics "define the Church on earth, as the community of those baptized in the name of Christ, united under his Vicar, the Pope, its visible head. Protestants, on the other hand, as the communion of saints, that is, of those who truly believe on Christ, in which the gospel is purely preached and the sacraments properly administered." But even evangelicals differ on the scope of the Church as an institution. Covenant theologians force fit the Church into the Old Testament. Ryrie summarizes the dispensational understanding of the uses of the term:
The Greek word which we translate church is made up of two words which mean “to call out”; thus it comes to mean a gathering or assembly. But, like so many important words, it needs qualifying—an assembly of whom?
1) Sometimes it means (even in the New Testament) an assembly of townspeople, called out in a political gathering (Ac 19:32, 39, 41).
2) At least one time it refers to the gathering of the Jewish people in their assembling in the wilderness (Ac 7:38).
3) Most frequently the word indicates a local group of Christians living in a certain place (1 Co 1:2; 1 Th 1:1; Rev 1:11 and many more).
4) The New Testament gives to
this word a technical meaning when it refers to the church universal to which
all believers and only believers belong; this is the same as the body of Christ
(Mt 16:18; Eph 1:22–23; 3:10, 21; 5:23, 25, 27, 29, 32; Col 1:18, Heb 12:23).
To summarize: the meaning of the word church is assembly. The kind of an assembly must be determined from the passage where the word is used. The doctrine of the Christian church is concerned only with uses (3) and (4) above.
The local Church (Ryrie’s #3) and its leadership is the topic to be addressed. In order clearly to scope this to the current age, the starting point of the Church Universal, (Ryrie’s #4) of which local communities are a part, must be understood.
When did the Church start? Unlike the Covent view, those who take the Bible at face value can site the birthday in Acts chapter 2. In Matthew 16:18, Jesus is quoted: “(O)n this rock I will build my church…” Its beginning is clearly future from that time. In the gospel of John, Jesus sheds light on the benefits to the beloved of His death: “But I tell you the truth, it is to your advantage that I go away; for if I do not go away, the Helper will not come to you; but if I go, I will send Him to you.” The special relationship of the Spirit and the Church, the Beloved of God in Christ, is only possible after Christ’s work is finished. Before His ascension, Christ spoke to His followers:
Gathering them together, He commanded them not to leave Jerusalem, but to wait for what the Father had promised, “Which,” He said, “you heard of from Me; for John baptized with water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days from now.”
Again this is Future tense, He was clearly speaking of that which had not yet happened; however we also have Peter’s description of Pentecost as a past event:
And as I began to speak, the Holy Spirit fell upon them just as He did upon us at the beginning. And I remembered the word of the Lord, how He used to say, ‘John baptized with water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit.’
Peter working as an Apostle in the foundational period of the Church (before the New Testament was completed) drew an analogy between this “key” experience of the Gentiles, and the Pentecost experience of the Jewish believers in Acts chapter 2. Peter labels the gift of the Spirit given to Cornelius as this fulfillment of John the Baptist’s words in Matthew 3:11 and even more clearly Christ’s words in Acts 1:5. Therefore it is concluded that the Acts 2 experience is the baptism of the Holy Spirit.
The unique character of the Church is that every member has been baptized into Christ. This baptism into Christ is unique to the Church. Paul in his correction of the Corinthians’ disunity, addresses the unity of the “body” of Christ, the beloved, the Church.
For even as the body is one and yet has many members, and all the members of the body, though they are many, are one body, so also is Christ. For by one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, whether slaves or free, and we were all made to drink of one Spirit.
That which unites the Church is the “Baptism of the Holy Spirit.” The clarity of this body, (the Church, the beloved) being Christ’s body is found in Colossians 1:18: “He is also head of the body, the church; and He is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, so that He Himself will come to have first place in everything.” Baptism of the Spirit, which happens once for all believers of this age, and for those not of the transitional period documented in the book of Acts, it happens at the moment of conversion, when one believes the truth of the Gospel.
To review, the Baptism predicted by Christ and John to be future, further identified by Peter to be Pentecost, is a unique experience of the Church and its members. It is also the point of establishment of the Church that Christ spoke of in Matthew 16:18, and as per John 16:7, this special relationship with the Spirit could not be the experienced by the Body without the completion of Jesus’ work.
This Chapter is an important foundation because it addresses the cessation of certain biblical offices, such as the priesthood, for this time period. All believers in this age are able directly to approach God precisely because they are in the Beloved, and Christ has completed His work (1 Peter 2:5.) Each member of Christ’s body may function as his own priest. The “office” is not valid for the Church. The Catholic Church has the office of Priest as a result of a failure to understand this. Because the Church has a clear point of origin, the offices of the Church should be clearly identified as such in the New Testament.
He is also head of the body, the church; and He is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, so that He Himself will come to have first place in everything. -Colossians 1:18;NASB
There is no need for a final human authority in the Church today, if one understands the roles of: God’s inspired Word, the indwelling power of the Holy Spirit, and the headship of Christ. The authority and infallibility of God’s Scripture is a subject unto itself, please see the authors paper or many better works. Our Father’s gift, Holy Scripture, gives us a court of final appeal, an objective standard for faith and practice. Because Christians are baptized by the Holy Spirit, His power is not only available to us, but we are commanded to submit to His control and guidance (Ephesians 5:18.) As shown in the previous chapter, believers today are in Christ, and referred to as the Beloved of God. This not only gives the believer his righteous standing before God by faith, and unity with fellow believers, but it also gives him his head-Christ (see Col 1:18, Eph 5:23.) However, what if two believer’s disagree? After prayer, and counsel, to whom do they go? God’s people are never directed to be democratic.
At its establishment, Christ left His Apostles in charge while the Bible was under construction. They, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, established doctrine in this same Word. Part of that doctrine included how to recognize Elders and Deacons.
There are many job titles at local evangelical churches today: “Senior Pastor,” “Youth Pastor,” “Executive Pastor,” “Minister” and more, but a careful read through the New Testament, while demonstrating a variety of gifts in use, only identifies three roles of leadership clearly. “Office” is an English term. Webster’s defines the term “office” as:
of·fice \ĺa/-f«s, ĺoľ-\ noun
[Middle English, from Middle French, from Latin officium service, duty, office, from opus work + facere to make, do — more at operate, do]
1 a : a special duty, charge, or position conferred by an exercise of governmental authority and for a public purpose : a position of authority to exercise a public function and to receive whatever emoluments may belong to it
b : a postion of responsibility or some degree of executive authority
2 [Middle English, from Old French, from Late Latin officium, from Latin] : a prescribed form or service of worship; specifically capitalized : divine office
3 : a religious or social ceremonial observance : rite
4 a : something that one ought to do or must do : an assigned or assumed duty, task, or role
b : the proper or customary action of something : function
c : something done for another : service
5 : a place where a particular kind of business is transacted or a service is supplied: as
a : a place in which the functions of a public officer are performed
b : the directing headquarters of an enterprise or organization
c : the place in which a professional person conducts business
6 plural, chiefly British : the apartments, attached buildings, or outhouses in which the activities attached to the service of a house are carried on
7 a : a major administrative unit in some governments áBritish Foreign Officeń
b : a subdivision of some government departments áPatent Officeń
synonymy see function
A review of Vines, shows that the English term “office,” is translated from a variety of Greek terms an New Testament ideas and contexts:
1. praxis (pra`xi" , (4234)), a doing, deed (akin to prassoµ, to do or practise), also denotes an acting or function, translated “office” in Rom. 12:4. See Deed.
2. hierateia (iJerateiva , (2405)), or hieratia, denotes a priest’s office, Luke 1:9; Heb 7:5, R.V., “priest’s office” (A.V., “office of the priesthood”).¶
hierateuoµ (iJerateuvw , (2407)), to officiate as a priest (akin to A, No. 2), is translated “he executed the priest’s office” in Luke 1:8. The word is frequent in Inscriptions.¶
Notes: (1) In Rom. 11:13, A.V., diakonia, a ministry, is translated “office” (R.V., “ministry”). (2) In Acts 1:20, R.V., episkopeµ, an overseership, is translated “office” (marg., “overseership;” A.V., “bishoprick”). (3) In 1 Tim. 3:1, the word “office,” in the phrase “the office of a bishop,” has nothing to represent it in the original; the R.V. marg. gives “overseer” for “bishop,” and the phrase lit. is ‘overseership;’ so in vv. 10, 13, where the A.V. has “use (and ‘used’) the office of a deacon,” the R.V. rightly omits “office,” and translates the verb diakoneoµ, to serve, “let them serve as deacons” and “(they that) have served (well) as deacons.”
In light of this perhaps it is better to discuss authority, so for this paper the “offices” of Church authority that will be considered, are Apostles, Elders, and Deacons. These are the only roles, for which the Scriptures clearly gives authority to rule the church, and sets forth standards to recognize or appoint them.
For this reason I am writing these things while absent, so that when present I need not use severity, in accordance with the authority which the Lord gave me for building up and not for tearing down.
The Office of an Apostle, while part of the foundational period of the Church Age, is today a closed office. Moody Handbook on Theology defines “Apostle” as:
APOSTLE. The word may be used in two senses: (1) as an office, it denotes one who followed Christ throughout His ministry; hence, it is limited to the Twelve and, in a special way, to Paul; (2) as a gift, it may be used in a general sense as “one who is sent from.” In all likelihood the gift was restricted to the twelve and to Paul.
In support of this view, a review of little Kittel’s summary of the term ajpovstolo", is in order:
Use of apostolos
in the NT.
1. Statistical Findings. There are 79
instances plus some secondary readings: one each in Matthew, Mark, and John; 29
in Paul plus five in the Pastorals; 34 in Luke/Acts; one each in Hebrews, 1
Peter, and Jude; two in 2 Peter; and three in Revelation-hence 80 percent in
the Pauline and Lucan material. The term stands at the head of epistles some
eleven times-six in Paul, three in the Pastorals, and one each in 1 Peter and 2
2. The Meaning.
a. The NT contains no trace of the common nonbiblical use for the act of sending or, figuratively, the object. Always signified is the person sent with full authority. The Greek gives only the form, the Hebrew the content. The legal element entails that the reference is only to males, although by the course of things women might have been apostles too. 
ajpovstolo", also denotes official bearers of the gospel message, first by the twelve, sent out by Jesus himself in Acts 1:2, Mt. 10:2, and Mk. 6:30, with Peter identified as their leader and Jerusalem as their center of operation,(see Acts 8:1.) Secondly, the first Christian missionaries, as in Acts 14:4, 14 (Paul and Barnabas), Gal. 1:19 (James), Rom. 16:7 (Junias and Andronicus), and 1 Cor. 15:7 (a wider circle.) Paul and Barnabas are sent by the congregation at Antioch (Acts 13). However, an “Apostle” is properly an apostle of Jesus Christ, and this larger group shares with the twelve the common basis of a meeting with the risen Lord and a commissioning by him personally. So Apollos is not called an apostle, but Paul’s apostleship is accepted at Jerusalem (Acts 15; Gal. 2:9; cf. 1 Cor. 15:8ff.). Apostles, then, are not just officials of the local church but officers of Christ for the Universal Churches’ establishment and edification. In this sense they are comparable to the Old Testament prophets (Eph. 2:20; 3:5). “In the church” in 1 Cor. 12:28 refers to the whole body whose head is Christ (cf. Eph. 1:22; Col. 1:18; Eph. 4:11), not to the local congregation.
Jesus, the foundation of our new relationship to God, after His work was finished, kept His promise to never leave us, by sending his Holy Spirit to dwell in all believers and establishing personally trained men to shepherd the young church universal. Under their authority the New Testament developed by the power of the Holy Spirit. The Word of God, which is now complete, and freely available to Christians is our sufficient final authority. All questions of proper local church leadership, need to find their final answer in the correct understanding of Scripture. This office is no longer needed.
Presbutevrion, and ejpiskovpou", in their family of forms are variously translated presbytery and elder or overseer and bishop. These English terms have discolored the modern day readers’ understanding of these biblical terms. The following word studies from Strauch’s’ book help:
Word Study on Presbyteros
The Greek word for “elder” is presbyteros, which is derived from the adjective presbys, which means “old.” Presbyteros is the comparative form, meaning “older” (Luke 15:25). However, in many cases the comparative force disappears and presbyteros simply means “old” or “old man.” The term presbyteros also carries a twofold sense as a designation for age and a title for office. In a few contexts it is hard to know which of these designations is intended, but in most cases the intended meaning is clear. Depending on the context, then, presbyteros can mean:
(1) “older man” or “old man’ as in 1 Timothy 5:1: “Do not sharply rebuke an older man [presbyteros].”
(2) a title for a community official, an “elder,” as in 1 Timothy 5:17: “Let the elders [presbyteroi] who rule well be considered worthy of double honor.”
Although the strict sense of advanced age is eliminated from the meaning of elder when referring to a community leader, certain connotations such as maturity, experience, dignity, authority, and honor are retained. Thus the term elder conveys positive concepts of maturity, respect, and wisdom. When presbyteros is used of a community leader, it is most commonly used in the plural form, presbyteroi. This is because the elder structure of leadership is leadership by a council of elders.
Word Study on Overseer
The Greek word overseer (episkopos) is a general term like our English words supervisor, manager, or guardian. In ancient Greek society, the word was a well-known designation of office. It was broadly used to describe any official who acted as a superintendent, manager, guardian, controller, inspector, or ruler. “More commonly,” states Hermann W. Beyer, “the episkopoi are local officials or the officers of societies.”
The Greek Old Testament (the Septuagint) used overseer in much the same way to refer to various officials. Beyer says, “There is no closely defined office bearing the title episkopos in the LXX. But the term overseer is freely used in many different ways.”3 A few examples of Old Testament overseers include the following: superintendents responsible for temple repair (2 Chron. 24:12,17), army officers (Num. 31:14), temple guardians (2 Kings 11:18), leaders supervising the people (Neh. 11:9), and tabernacle overseers (Num. 4:16).
Some, who argue for bishops as an overseer of many local churches, claim these are different offices. The clearest argument for their being synonyms, or at least emphasizing different aspects of the same office, is Acts chapter 20, where Paul calls the Ephesian elders to meet him for a final visit in verse 17, and then refers to them as overseers in verse 28.
The functions of elders are clearly spelled out in Scripture. First, they rule and oversee the local Church (1 Timothy 5:17; 1 Peter 5:2). Next, they labor in the study of the Word and doctrine (1 Timothy 5:17). Then, they correct the straying brother with admonishment (1 Thessalonians 5:12). They warn the unruly (5:14). Also, they are to comfort the fainthearted and uphold the weak, while being patient with all (also 5:14). They are to pray for the sick (James 5:14-15), and they set examples to their brothers and sisters in the Church (1 Peter 5:3).
The two listings of the qualifications for elders, 1 Tim. 3:1–7; and Titus 1:5–9 give qualifications, which may be grouped in four categories: personal character, public testimony, family, and ministry. These occasionally overlap, that is for example a family centered failure will affect one’s ministry or personal qualifications.
In a candidate’s personal life, he should avoid extremes, or be “temperate.” He should show good judgment, or common sense in being, “prudent.” Also, “not addicted to wine” nor “pugnacious,” he is not to have a violent temper. Rather he should be “gentle” that is patient or considerate, not heavy handed. In addition, he should be “uncontentious,” or peaceful in nature and “free from the love of money”, that is not greedy for personal gain. He is not to be a new believer. He needs time enough to develop spiritual maturity and wisdom - “not a novice.” “Not self-willed,” an elder should not insist on getting his way. “Not quick-tempered,” nor should he be easily angered. “Loving what is good,” he should be loyal to moral and ethical values, as well as “just,” or fair and honest “Devout,” he should be devoted to God in worship, and “self-controlled” or under control in adverse or tempting circumstances.
In the public arena an overseer should be “above reproach”—having no questionable conduct that would bring accusations, “hospitable”—being receptive and open to people, and of a “good reputation with those outside”—having a morally and ethically upright testimony with the unsaved.
At home, a candidate for the office of Elder needs to be the “husband of one wife”—literally, being a one-woman type of man and content with his wife if married, who “manages his own household well,” which includes being a spiritual leader of his family. The result of which will mean his “children are under control with dignity,” and are “children who believe, and are not accused of dissipation,” who also display faith and are not living reckless lives, nor are rebellious to their parents.
In the area of ministry, He must be “able to teach,” or able to instruct in sound doctrine. He must be “holding fast the word of truth,” or firm in doctrine and not compromising of Scripture. This will result in the encouraging of believers by means of correct doctrine-“exhort with sound doctrine.” Also he must “refute those who contradict”—standing against and stopping false teaching.
These qualifications emphasize the character of the person rather than educational achievements. An elder is to be unselfish, of good reputation, a good family leader, and able to handle and present the Scriptures. Those who desire the office of ejpivskopo" (overseer) are to be examined according to these qualifications.
A team of leaders in fellowship is important. In the Old Testament elders were always seen as a council; they were not mentioned as having individual authority. This same pattern is followed in the New Testament as well. When elders are mentioned in connection with the church, there are plural elders in a singular church (James 5:14, tou;" presbutevrou" th`" ejkklhsiva"; Acts 14:23, kat_ ejkklhsivan presbutevrou"). This fact establishes the apostolic pattern of plural leadership for individual churches and also strongly implies that the authority and function of elders were restricted to a particular local church. This can be seen by going back to Acts 20:17 and 28: “And from Miletus he sent to Ephesus and called to him the elders of the church. … ‘Be on guard for yourselves and for all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He purchased with His own blood.’ ” The words “among which” (ejn w|/) refer to the flock in Ephesus.
diavkono" or deacon means “a person who renders service,” a “helper,” or person who gives support. As an office, the New Testament mentions “deacons” only at Philippians 1:1; 1 Timothy 3:8-13; cf. Acts 6:1-6. In the secular world, a servant is, one who waits on tables,(Luke 10:40; 17:8-9; John 2:5, 9), a royal attendant (Matthew 22:13), or a governmental ruler (Romans 13:4). Other uses of this term in the New Testament include references to: Christian servants in general (Mark 10:42-44), Christ (Romans 15:8; Philippians 2:6), the apostles (Acts 1:17, 25; Romans 11:13), Phoebe (Romans 16:1), pastors or elders (Ephesians 6:21; Colossians 4:7), and even Satan’s ministers (2 Corinthians 11:15). The usages of the term “deacon” show that he is foremost a servant of others, a much needed support person in the “work of the ministry.” Every Christian is to be a servant of others for the Lord’s sake. In a technical sense, some men in the church assume special servant roles as deacons.  The only difference between the qualifications for deacons and elders is the requirement of being able to teach. This is an important office. However it should never be forgot that all members of Christ’s body are to be servants using their gifts to build the Church up.
All of the beloved should be little “d” deacons
But to each one is given the manifestation of the Spirit for the common good.
Leadership is an act all Christians can and should be involved in. All members of the Body of Christ have a gift. Leadership, is modeling what it is to live like Christ, using ones gifts to help build up the Church and her members, and sharing the gospel. This is to live one’s life with Jesus’ priorities in mind. The only way to do this is to be filled by the Spirit of God, as Galatians 5:22-26 describes:
22 But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness,
23 gentleness, self-control; against such things there is no law.
24 Now those who belong to Christ Jesus have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires.
25 If we live by the Spirit, let us also walk by the Spirit.
26 Let us not become boastful, challenging one another, envying one another.
All believers are called to live as servants. Not all roles of leadership are from Church offices. Some of those who serve in the Body and meet the standards of 1 Timothy 3 should be recognized officially as deacons. Those who rule the local church are the Elders, and their standard for guidance is the Scripture. The office of an Apostle was a transitional role preceding the availability of the whole Bible, and for the establishment of the Church and doctrine. In closing, though the only offices in function for the Church today are Elders and Deacons, all Christians are to be deacons or servants of one another.
Barber, Warren, Inspiration, Unpublished paper for CTS - 101 Bibliology , 1998.
Enns, Paul, The Moody Handbook of Theology, Chicago, Ill.: Moody Press, 1996.
Glasscock, Bibliotheca Sacra: 1955–1995, Dallas, TX: Dallas Theological Seminary , electronic media, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc. 1997.
Hodge, Charles, Systematic Theology, Oak Harbor, electronic media, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc. 1997.
Kittel, Gerhard, and Friedrich, Gerhard, Editors, The Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Abridged in One Volume, Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company 1985.
Meisinger, George, Ecclesiology: Class notes
Ryrie, Charles C., A Survey of Bible Doctrine, (Chicago, Illinois: Moody Press) 1972
Strauch, Alexander, Biblical Eldership, A call to restore Biblical Church Leadership, Littleton, CO, Revised and Expanded 1995
Vine, W. E. Vine’s Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words, Grand Rapids, MI: Fleming H. Revell 1981
Webster, Merriam Collegiate Dictionary, Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster, Incorporated 1993.
 Hodge quoting Winer in his "Comparative Darstellung" (Hodge, Charles, Systematic Theology, [Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.]), 1997.
 Ryrie, Charles C., A Survey of Bible Doctrine (Chicago, Illinois: Moody Press), 1972.
 John 16:7;NASB
 Acts 1:4-5
 Acts 11:15-16
 For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus. For all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ.There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. Galatians 3:26-28
 1 Corinthians 12:12-13
 Barber, Warren, Inspiration, Unpublished paper for CTS - 101 Bibliology , 1998
 Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster, Incorporated), 1993.
 Vine, W. E., Vine’s Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words, (Grand Rapids, MI: Fleming H. Revell) 1981
 Enns, Paul, The Moody Handbook of Theology, (Chicago, Ill.: Moody Press) 1996.
 Kittel, Gerhard, and Friedrich, Gerhard, Editors, The Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Abridged in One Volume (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company), 1985.
 Strauch p124, and p148
 Glasscock, Bibliotheca Sacra: 1955–1995 (Dallas, TX: Dallas Theological Seminary), 1997.
 Dr. Meisinger class notes lesson six